About Bikram Yoga


Why do they call it the torture chamber?

No, I did not make that up, they really call it that. This is straight from the lips of almost every Bikram yoga instructor I have had which is roughly 30 different instructors. The phrase is supposedly coined by Bikram Choudhury himself, the man who developed the practice and put together the sequence of postures that now has devotees and franchises all over the world. First, I will provide the details and description of what exactly Bikram Yoga is and then I will review Bikram Yoga with full disclosure that I have practiced this series for over 4 years and continue to practice it whenever I get the opportunity.

The Facts:

Bikram Yoga Postures
Bikram Yoga Postures

NOTE: Below is the description of Bikram Yoga as presented by their website literature, studio owners, and instructors.

Temperature: 105° Fahrenheit, 40% Humidity

Duration: 90 Minutes

Postures: 26 Hatha Postures, each posture done twice, 2 Pranayama (breathing exercises).

Level: Beginner, and all levels (please read the above note, then my review below)

Instructors: All certified specifically to teach Bikram Yoga.

Variations: There are no variations on the original series. Some studios may offer advanced level class (usually by invitation only).

Good to know: Instructors teach from a memorized “dialogue” (their word). There are no variations to the order of the postures unless the instructor makes a mistake.


MY RATING: ♦♦♦♦◊

The Positives:

Consistency. I started Bikram yoga after attending my neighbourhood yoga studio hot classes where every teacher had a different take on what they wanted to teach in their hot yoga class. Some teachers would launch right into dancer’s pose at the get go (which is not an appropriate way to start ANY yoga class), yet others would put a camel pose in the first 4 or 5 postures (that, folks, is not safe to do at the beginning of any class). In Bikram, that never happens. Every posture comes in the pre-ordained order, every instruction has been scripted, every detail of the poses spoken to by the instructor. You would think hearing the same “dialogue” every class would be boring, but actually knowing what is coming up next allows you (after a few classes) to take the attention off the instructor and onto yourself and you really notice how you are performing each posture. I do admit that I don’t understand why the teaching script is called a “dialogue” because it’s obviously a monologue (no one else is talking!)

Noticeable Improvement. Because you perform the same postures every class you will notice incremental improvements in your ability to do each pose. One day in the wide legged forward fold you will realize your head just touched your mat with ease where it was 5 inches off the mat a few weeks ago. Same goes for almost every posture. This, I would say is the most satisfying and rewarding part of practicing the same series over and over again on a regular basis.

Challenging. First off, I disagree with the Bikram notion that this series is for beginners. Case in point, I took a friend to Bikram with me who had done a few Hatha yoga classes but never hot yoga. After their first Bikram class, they said they never wanted to go back. Actually what they said is, “I’d rather lay in the middle of the Highway on a scorching hot summer day than go back to Bikram ever again.” This made me consider the fact that I had participated in at least 50 hot yoga classes as well as non-heated classes at my local studio for over a year before going to Bikram for the very first time. I have also seen numerous first time Bikram students in class, only to never see any sign of them ever again. So, how does this become a positive? Well, for those of us up to the challenge, it is an exhilarating feeling to go into the “torture chamber” and make it out of there feeling more alive than ever before. There is challenge in every class, sometimes every minute of every class. This for me, is a huge positive. For others it may not be.

Somewhat Militant. Yes, this to me is a positive. I have heard tales of Bikram teachers yelling at or berating participants for not trying hard enough or not doing postures correctly. This never happened in

Militant yoga
Militant yoga

any of the classes I attended but many Bikram instructors do take notice when you are “flaking out” and not keeping up. They tend only to call you out if they know you are a regular participant. They do expect you to try hard and do your best. It isn’t exactly a warm and fuzzy atmosphere in the torture chamber, if you know what I mean. Perhaps that is why the gender ratio in these classes is often close to 50/50. I once had a teacher come over because I was in Savasana when I should have been doing the triangle pose. He asked me if I was feeling ok, I said yes, but that I was tired. He said as long as you’re not feeling sick please get up and do the work because if you came all the way here then you might as well do the work. He was 100% right. Bikram instructors tend to be edgy, they drop the “f” bomb once in awhile and they will catch you out if you are lazy. If you’re a very sensitive soul, Bikram might not be your cuppa tea. Me, I can be a little lazy in a hot class (cuz it’s darned hot) and can use the extra push so yes, somewhat militant is fine by me.

International. There are Bikram studios in most major cities around the world so when I’m travelling I can practice anywhere. Language isn’t an issue because I know the whole series of postures, it’s the same everywhere so I don’t need understand what is being said and still participate.

Bikram for Weight loss. There was a recent study done by the American Council of Exercise (ACE) that disputed the correlation between Bikram yoga and weight loss. The same study also maintained that it could be considered a health hazard to practice hot yoga that could potentially raise your core temperature above safe levels. I am a member of ACE and I read their report very carefully, noting their concerns with interest.

However, I have also watched a man in his 40’s named Donald who started Bikram yoga after his doctor told him that if he didn’t change his diet and start exercising he would be dead in a couple of years. Donald weighed well over 250 lbs when he started. He went to Bikram 5 times a week, sometimes more. At the end of a year Donald was unrecognizable. I mean, literally, I didn’t know who he was because I had been practicing at another studio in between. I didn’t ask him how much weight he had lost after a year but it looked to be at least 50 lbs. He was also beaming from ear to ear. As for my personal experience, I started Bikram and during my initial 30 days of practice in July of 2008 I lost the proverbial last 10 lbs. But if anyone tries to tell you 30 consecutive days of Bikram yoga is a cinch, don’t buy it. It was a gruelling 30 days and I am still patting myself on the back for ever pulling that off.

The Negatives:

Inconsistent Heat. This has been the case at each Bikram location I have practiced at (6 so far). Keeping the room at 105° with 40% humidity is apparently a difficult task. I have been to studios that were overheated to the point that more than 6 people were left the class. Sometimes you may get 1 person leaving the hot room if they aren’t feeling well, but if there’s half a dozen leaving there’s something wrong. I use this as an example because I was the 7th person out the door. I went back in as did the others but we all agreed the room was much hotter than usual. The opposite can also be true when the room isn’t hot enough. The humidity level is sometimes also an issue. One studio had numerous portable humidifiers lined up in the back of the hot room. This caused the humidity in the room to be uneven and if you were the last one in and got the spot right in front of the humidifier you were in for a double roasting. Still, this was not a new issue for me having come from another studio that offered mainly non-heated classes peppered with maybe 1 hot class a day. The temperature was sometimes 90°, sometimes 95° and so on, depending on how long beforehand they remembered to turn on the heat. In many studios that aren’t focused on hot yoga, just offering hot classes as an “add on” there may not be a humidity component.

Intimidating. This isn’t the case in all Bikram locations but in several that I’ve been to the front row is filled with die-hard practitioners, instructors practicing on their off time, and others who I am affectionately labelling the “human rubber band gang”. Even after practicing Bikram for over 4 years, I dare not breach the front row. I am not worthy or rubbery enough (or both). So, yes, I find the aficionados of this practice to be intimidating. They know they can bend in ways I never will be able to (or really want to).

Bikram Choudhury. This is the founder of the series based in Los Angeles, California and unless you’ve been under a rock somewhere for the last 10 years you will have heard some negative press about him. This is a review of the Bikram practice and not of Bikram Choudhury. In light of recent events and certain legal allegations in the last few years various owners of Bikram studios around the world have felt it necessary to distance themselves from the mother ship by clarifying in writing that they are independently owned and operated and are not funded or give funds to their namesake. Some Bikram studios around the world have chosen to change the name of their studios completely. I personally, will keep practicing this series of postures sequenced by Bikram Choudhury in the torture chamber because they work for me. Despite many in the Bikram fold who revere him as some kind of mega-guru, to me he is a person who may have done some reprehensible things, but just because I practise the yoga bearing his name does not mean I condone his actions or that I am obliged to worship at his altar. Enough said.

Wrapping up

That’s all folks, my on review on the practice of Bikram Yoga. Click here to see my review of Bikram vs Moksha (Moda) yoga.

Your comments are welcome, please leave them in the comment box below. Thank you, Connie.

Hot Yoga for Weight Loss

Weight loss from hot yoga

Is hot yoga good for weight loss?

The short answer is yes, hot yoga does benefit weight lossFat belly

Hot yoga can definitely help with weight loss but there are some caveats. You won’t lose anything with any activity if you only do it once or twice a week. That goes for any form of exercise, and hot yoga isn’t any different. The inches aren’t going to melt off just from the mere fact that you’re sweating and exercising in the hot room. The good news is that over the years I’ve borne witness to many a hot yoga loser, weight loser, that is. I’ve seen people transformed over a few months in both Bikram and Moksha yoga. Still, if you’re expecting an easy weight loss solution, this isn’t it. Sorry to burst your bubble. However, hot yoga does benefit weight loss, and I can personally attest to that.

About my hot yoga weight loss story

Ancient Scale
Ancient Scale

Here’s my experience of weight loss with hot yoga. When I first began practicing yoga 8 years ago it was at a local studio nearby. I was working full time at a high stress job at the time and started to notice that my waistline was, well, disappearing. I had gained about 5 pounds per year for about 3 years in a row, which put me at 15 lbs more than what I was used to weighing. I have to guess that my ideal weight was always around 120 lbs @ 5’2″. I don’t believe in scales and I’ve never owned one. At the beginning yoga was purely an oasis for me. I didn’t consider yoga to be any kind of aerobic exercise or a “proper” work out. Except for the hot classes, they really got my heart going. Although I gravitated to the hot classes straight away, they didn’t have them every day and they weren’t always compatible with my schedule so I could only squeeze in 1, maximum 2 hot classes per week, even though I tried to go to yoga every other day. I also continued to go to step aerobics and cardio box classes at the community centre during my first two years practicing mostly non-heated yoga. I didn’t lose any weight during the first 2 years of practicing mostly non-heated yoga interspersed with the once or twice a week hot yoga class, topped up with aerobics classes at least once a week.

Talk about starting hot yoga with a bang

The deal was 30 days for 30 bucks at Bikram Yoga, so I jumped in with both feet. You can read a detailed review of Bikram yoga here. I had never been in a 90 minute class before, and certainly never practiced in such a hot room, plus the humidity was a brand new component. Funny thing is the first 7 days were relatively easy but every day after that was not easy. Maybe because it was July and somedays felt as hot outside as it did in the “Bikram torture chamber” but every day after the first week took a will of steel to get myself to the class. I’m glad I did because if I hadn’t of completed those 30 days I wouldn’t have gotten the final results. One very interesting surprise was that after every 90 minute class, I discovered I wasn’t hungry at all. Thirsty yes, but absolutely no desire to scarf back the nearest burrito which is how I usually felt after any 60 minute aerobics class. Taking into account you can’t really eat anything up to 2 hours before any yoga class (because you turn upside down quite a bit), I was thrown for a loop by my lack of munchies after the class. I did google this and found many blogs and chats that corroborated what I was experiencing. I also noticed a rise in my energy level and around day 10 the weight loss became noticeable.

Regular or hot yoga for weight loss – what’s the verdict?

Down Dog
Regular yoga effects on weight loss got you in  down dog mode?

I had not expected to lose any weight at all when I switched from regular to all hot yoga classes because I hadn’t lost any weight from my previous 2 years of practicing non-heated yoga. I had not expected hot yoga to be much different, only harder. But for me the hot yoga had a very different effect my body and I began to lose weight after the first week of daily classes. By the end of 30 days at Bikram yoga I lost approximately 10 lbs. Remember, I don’t own a scale, but even my stretchy pants were bagged out on me. My double chin took a vacation and my love handles did actually seem to melt. Important to note that during these 30 days of hot yoga I didn’t do any other kind of exercise at all. Firstly because the hot yoga took everything out of me and secondly 90 minutes in class, plus travel time to and from, then shower time added up to nearly 3 hours of my day. I had more than used up my “me” time that month. Once I had finished my 30 day “trial by fire” I got curious as to why I had lost weight in hot yoga and never lost any weight in 2 years of non-heated practice. One fact I researched was:

How many calories are burned in a Bikram class?

There are conflicting statistics on how many calories are burned in a Bikram class. The answer is somewhere between 600 and 1000 calories, dependent on the individual exertion rate, age, fitness level and other factors. I certainly felt like I burned a 1000 calories a class but even if it was only 600, my weight loss was the proof I needed to continue the practice indefinitely. That, and the way I felt after each class, which was simply fantastic. Scroll to the bottom of this post to see a comparison table of calories burned performing a variety of different activities.

After my initial 30 days of Bikram I settled into a regular practice of 2-3 Bikram classes for the next 4 years. I didn’t lose any more weight, but I did maintained the ten pounds I lost. Then, last year I stopped practicing yoga due to an injury (unrelated to yoga) and I gained back the 10 lbs over several months of a lower than usual level of activity.

Back to the drawing board

Or should I say back to the torture chamber. As my injury was healing, I decided to go back to Bikram and picked up my routine of 2-3 classes per week. I felt good but the 10 regained pounds would not budge. At around this time a friend of mine recommended two books for me to read, Thinner This Year and Younger Next Year. I read these books with interest and got 2 important takeaways. The author, Chris Crowley imposes a theory that strenuous aerobic exercise 2-4 times a week is not enough to offset any kind of weight gain in people over the age of 40. He is insistent that exercising 5-6 times a week is the only way to maintain youth, vitality and stave off the weight gain that begins after 40. Yup, 5-6 times a week, you read that right. The author goes on to back his theory with scientific data presented by two doctor/co-authors. Ok, are you with me here? First takeaway, exercise hard, 6 times a week if you are over 40 and want http://any chance of staying young and fit. Next is the theory that sitting still (i.e. in front of a computer or TV) for long periods of time sends a signal to your brain that it’s time to go into hibernation. Depression is tool of survival that enables you to be still, sleep and store fat over for the winter months. When you exercise you send a signal to your brain that you are in hunting and gathering mode, which is also happy spring mode. So, the second takeaway is either your body is in hunting mode moving forward or in hibernation mode storing fat getting ready for the famine. Again, all backed up by the doctor written chapters with scientific data. Those books got me thinking, I recommend you give them a read. I’m not in agreement with everything in these books and the style of writing is a little on the preachy side but they definitely challenged me to find out if there was some validity to what they presented.          CanadiansCLICK HERE ← to buy

What does this have to do with hot yoga effects on weight loss?

A lot, because I decided to increase my hot yoga practice to 5 times a week. Taking into account the takeaways from the two books by Chris Crowley and his doctor/co-authors, I was going to test out their theories with my hot yoga practice and try to kick start my weight loss efforts again. But logistically, I could not manage 5 x 90 minute classes every week. I worked full time, and like many busy women out there also have a home and family to take care of. The lack of shorter class options at Bikram meant I had to find an alternative.

Enter Moksha Yoga

Happy, hot yoga sweaty smile
I was apprehensive but excited to start a different type of hot yoga practice at Moksha Yoga but their introductory offer of $40 for a whole month of unlimited classes made it a no-risk option for me. The first month went by quickly, and I took full advantage of that month. I tried every type of class they had to offer. I attended 20 classes in the introductory month and then signed on for a monthly membership. To read more Moksha please click to my review of Moksha Yoga. http://In fact, I was enjoying myself so much at Moksha that I forgot about my resolve to lose the 10 lbs I’d lost and regained. I continued to practice and hit my goal of 5 times a week easily because there were many more time slots available than had previously been offered at Bikram. I had a lot more fun practicing hot yoga than ever before, and the weight loss slipped from the top of my mind. Until one day I put on a pair of jeans I had stuffed in the back of the cupboard (you can guess why) and they slid on and buttoned up. Didn’t even have to lay on the bed. I still don’t own a scale but now after 7 months of practicing hot yoga 5 times a week I have had to buy quite a few new pairs of pants that hug me better. Of course, then I had to know…

How many calories are burned in a Moksha class?

The amount of calories burned in Moksha classes differ. Most classes are 60 minutes, but they also offer 75 and 90 minute classes. Calories burned for a 60 minute class averages 440 and for a 90 minute class is 700. Again, depending on the individual, fitness level, age, and other factors. So, if Bikram (supposedly) burns more calories why when I was attending 2-3 classes per week didn’t I see any weight loss? Only when I did 30 days in a row did I initially lose. This brings me back to the theories in the Thinner This Year and Younger Next Year books. I wasn’t invested in those theories at all but like a curious bunny I had to try it out and see if it worked for me. It did work for me, and I am now a believer. The standard 2-3 times a week most people work out after the age of 40 just doesn’t cut it if you are looking to stay fit and functional ’til the very end, which you know I am.

How do I maximize the benefits of hot yoga for weight loss?

To maximize the benefits of hot yoga for weight loss you need to do more than just show up. The term “work to your edge” means just what it sounds like. Exert to the maximum extent of power you have by engaging all the muscles, moving that limb the extra inch to get into the edge of every pose. Holding the pose until you almost can’t. I see participants who barely break a sweat in class. If their goal is not to lose any weight but to simply enjoy the breathing and the communal feeling of the class then they are doing perfectly fine. But if your goal is weight loss in hot yoga, then you have to work it. If that sounds harsh, I don’t mean it to be. I do attend restorative and Yin classes periodically and I take full advantage of that time to relax and let go, but that’s not why I do hot yoga. Know your purpose and know what you have to do to achieve it. If it’s weight loss, that doesn’t just happen without setting a specific intention.

How exactly do I lose weight with hot yoga?

  1. Practice more than 3 times a week (preferably 5, especially if you’re over 40)
  2. Work at your edge during class
  3. Stay hydrated (ok that doesn’t make you lose weight but it keeps you healthy)

Finally, if you made it down this far, here’s an interesting table so you can compare calories burned by engaging in a wide assortment of sports.

Maybe hot yoga isn’t the way you want to lose weight

Fair enough, if you don’t enjoy hot yoga the way I do, it may sound like just plain hard work. Different strokes for different folks, especially if you think doing yoga in a room heated up over 100° sounds like it might GIVE you a stroke. Maybe give it a pass. But there’s more than one way. Take a look at this video, I’ve seen the product and it’s a very well thought out plan, simple to follow and effective way to tackle weight loss involving yoga, but not related to hot yoga at all. Fair warning, do not click on this unless you have a good 20 minutes to spend watching it. I found it a little repetitive but watch it to the end for the full effect Click Here for a non-hot yoga weight loss plan.

Calories Burned Various Activities

125 pound person 155 pound person 185 pound person
Gym Activities
Weight Lifting: general 90 112 133
Aerobics: water 120 149 178
Stretching, Hatha Yoga 120 149 178
Calisthenics: moderate 135 167 200
Riders: general (ie., HealthRider) 150 186 222
Aerobics: low impact 165 205 244
Stair Step Machine: general 180 223 266
Teaching aerobics 180 223 266
Weight Lifting: vigorous 180 223 266
Aerobics, Step: low impact 210 260 311
Aerobics: high impact 210 260 311
Bicycling, Stationary: moderate 210 260 311
Rowing, Stationary: moderate 210 260 311
Calisthenics: vigorous 240 298 355
Circuit Training: general 240 298 355
Rowing, Stationary: vigorous 255 316 377
Elliptical Trainer: general 270 335 400
Ski Machine: general 285 353 422
Aerobics, Step: high impact 300 372 444
Bicycling, Stationary: vigorous 315 391 466
Training and Sport Activities
Billiards 75 93 111
Bowling 90 112 133
Dancing: slow, waltz, foxtrot 90 112 133
Frisbee 90 112 133
Volleyball: non-competitive, general play 90 112 133
Water Volleyball 90 112 133
Archery: non-hunting 105 130 155
Golf: using cart 105 130 155
Hang Gliding 105 130 155
Curling 120 149 178
Gymnastics: general 120 149 178
Horseback Riding: general 120 149 178
Tai Chi 120 149 178
Volleyball: competitive, gymnasium play 120 149 178
Walking: 3.5 mph (17 min/mi) 120 149 178
Badminton: general 135 167 200
Walking: 4 mph (15 min/mi) 135 167 200
Kayaking 150 186 222
Skateboarding 150 186 222
Snorkeling 150 186 222
Softball: general play 150 186 222
Walking: 4.5 mph (13 min/mi) 150 186 222
Whitewater: rafting, kayaking 150 186 222
Dancing: disco, ballroom, square 165 205 244
Golf: carrying clubs 165 205 244
Dancing: Fast, ballet, twist 180 223 266
Fencing 180 223 266
Hiking: cross-country 180 223 266
Skiing: downhill 180 223 266
Swimming: general 180 223 266
Walk/Jog: jog <10 min. 180 223 266
Water Skiing 180 223 266
Wrestling 180 223 266
Basketball: wheelchair 195 242 289
Race Walking 195 242 289
Ice Skating: general 210 260 311
Racquetball: casual, general 210 260 311
Rollerblade Skating 210 260 311
Scuba or skin diving 210 260 311
Sledding, luge, toboggan 210 260 311
Soccer: general 210 260 311
Tennis: general 210 260 311
Basketball: playing a game 240 298 355
Bicycling: 12-13.9 mph 240 298 355
Football: touch, flag, general 240 298 355
Hockey: field & ice 240 298 355
Rock Climbing: rappelling 240 298 355
Running: 5 mph (12 min/mile) 240 298 355
Running: pushing wheelchair, marathon wheeling 240 298 355
Skiing: cross-country 240 298 355
Snow Shoeing 240 298 355
Swimming: backstroke 240 298 355
Volleyball: beach 240 298 355
Bicycling: BMX or mountain 255 316 377
Boxing: sparring 270 335 400
Football: competitive 270 335 400
Orienteering 270 335 400
Running: 5.2 mph (11.5 min/mile) 270 335 400
Running: cross-country 270 335 400
Bicycling: 14-15.9 mph 300 372 444
Martial Arts: judo, karate, kickbox 300 372 444
Racquetball: competitive 300 372 444
Rope Jumping 300 372 444
Running: 6 mph (10 min/mile) 300 372 444
Swimming: breaststroke 300 372 444
Swimming: laps, vigorous 300 372 444
Swimming: treading, vigorous 300 372 444
Water Polo 300 372 444
Rock Climbing: ascending 330 409 488
Running: 6.7 mph (9 min/mile) 330 409 488
Swimming: butterfly 330 409 488
Swimming: crawl 330 409 488
Bicycling: 16-19 mph 360 446 533
Handball: general 360 446 533
Running: 7.5 mph (8 min/mile) 375 465 555
Running: 8.6 mph (7 min/mile) 435 539 644
Bicycling: > 20 mph 495 614 733
Running: 10 mph (6 min/mile) 495 614 733
Outdoor Activities
Planting seedlings, shrubs 120 149 178
Raking Lawn 120 149 178
Sacking grass or leaves 120 149 178
Gardening: general 135 167 200
Mowing Lawn: push, power 135 167 200
Operate Snow Blower: walking 135 167 200
Plant trees 135 167 200
Gardening: weeding 139 172 205
Carrying & stacking wood 150 186 222
Digging, spading dirt 150 186 222
Laying sod / crushed rock 150 186 222
Mowing Lawn: push, hand 165 205 244
Chopping & splitting wood 180 223 266
Shoveling Snow: by hand 180 223 266
Home & Daily Life Activities
Sleeping 19 23 28
Watching TV 23 28 33
Reading: sitting 34 42 50
Standing in line 38 47 56
Cooking 75 93 111
Child-care: bathing, feeding, etc. 105 130 155
Food Shopping: with cart 105 130 155
Moving: unpacking 105 130 155
Playing w/kids: moderate effort 120 149 178
Heavy Cleaning: wash car, windows 135 167 200
Child games: hop-scotch, jacks, etc. 150 186 222
Playing w/kids: vigorous effort 150 186 222
Moving: household furniture 180 223 266
Moving: carrying boxes 210 260 311
Home Repair
Auto Repair 90 112 133
Wiring and Plumbing 90 112 133
Carpentry: refinish furniture 135 167 200
Lay or remove carpet/tile 135 167 200
Paint, paper, remodel: inside 135 167 200
Cleaning rain gutters 150 186 222
Hanging storm windows 150 186 222
Paint house: outside 150 186 222
Carpentry: outside 180 223 266
Roofing 180 223 266
Occupational Activities
Computer Work 41 51 61
Light Office Work 45 56 67
Sitting in Meetings 49 60 72
Desk Work 53 65 78
Sitting in Class 53 65 78
Truck Driving: sitting 60 74 89
Bartending/Server 75 93 111
Heavy Equip. Operator 75 93 111
Police Officer 75 93 111
Theater Work 90 112 133
Welding 90 112 133
Carpentry Work 105 130 155
Coaching Sports 120 149 178
Masseur, standing 120 149 178
Construction, general 165 205 244
Coal Mining 180 223 266
Horse Grooming 180 223 266
Masonry 210 260 311
Forestry, general 240 298 355
Heavy Tools, not power 240 298 355
Steel Mill: general 240 298 355
Firefighting 360 446 533

Comments are welcome, please leave them in the box below, Cheerio, Connie.